At last a completed (well, one battalion gun is missing) infantry brigade of the Armee du Nord 1793-1795 consisting of two demi brigades each of one line and two volunteer battalions, a small combined grenadier battalion and an artillery battery (8 pdr).
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Wednesday, May 5, 2021
Thursday, April 29, 2021
I was reading the Reglement issued 28th of February 1772 in which various specific information is given about weapons, colour and sabreknots etc.
So I thought that would be usefull for those who like to paint Dutch infantry in 28mm or 15mm.
Spontoons (officers) and halberds (sergeants)
The Spontoon of the officers should be black and max 7 Rijnlandse Voet or 219,8 cm
There are various models of spontoons, from the Dutch military museum underneath some pictures. The first one had the coat of arms of the Province of Utrecht, the second one the coat of arms of Williem IV or V and the last one of the Province of Zeeland.
The halberds of the sergeants should also be black and max 7 Rijnlandse Voet or 219,8 cm
Of the officers: tassel and knot orange/silver
of the sergeants: tassel and knot silver and orange
of the other ranks: tassel white but the knot in various company colours with those of the first battalion in one full colour, those of the second battalion in two colours
1st company (grenadiers)
Orange and white
Red and white
Yellow and white
Green and white
Blue and white
Black and white
Red and blue
The measurements of the Flags:
In the reglement is stated, that new flags should be square with each side in „Rijnlandse“ measurements 3 Voet and 2 Duim (a voet = 31,4 cm, a duim 2,61 cm) so the flags should be 99,42 cm square (or approx 1 metre square).
needs to be in total (incl metal point and shoe) 9 Rijnlandse Voet or 282,6 cm
The flagpole needs to be black.
When you look at the Dutch flags which are in the Rijksmuseum of Amsterdam (and which were pictured in an earlier post) you see that these flags are almost 1 meter square. Some a few cm shorter on one side and sometimes a litle bit wider.
Of the Swiss flags is said, that they are bigger then the Dutch flags so probably these are an older model (or they just didn't conform to the dutch standards).
Only on hats it is allowed to have gold or silver lace of max one "Rijnlandse duim" of 2,61 cm.
Notice that on the first picture the drumrim is blue white striped, on the second red/white triangels.
Saturday, April 17, 2021
Although in the last post I already showed some known colonels flag, I think it is good to give some background to organisation and flags of the Dutch infantry.
In 1752 (after the War of the Austrian Succession or WAS) the Dutch infantry was reorganised by uniting 2 1-battlion strong regiments into one regiment or disbanding regiments.
The National, German and Scottish infantry had the same organisation with two battalion each of 6 musketeer and one grenadier company.
The Walloon regiment was the only one which up to around 1790 had 3 battalions but with the same amount of companies per battalion.
The Scottish regiments became in 1783 national regiments but kept its organisation.
The Swiss regiments were different:
- The Swiss guard had 4 companies per battalion
- The Swiss line regiments had 6 companies per battalion.
Both had about 10 grenadiers incorporated into each company and didn't have a seperate genadiercompany. It is possible and likely, that in the field the grenadiers were combined into a seperate unit or company.
As units were combined or disbanded in 1752 I think at that time most new regiments received new flags although the first time they would carry the older flags until replaced
Most of the regiments would have two flags per battalion which probably was one colonels and three regimentals but up to now I haven't find a definitieve proof of that. So maybe each battalion had one colonels and one regimental flag.
The Swiss had 4 (guard) or six (line) flags per battalion which probably resulted in one colonel and seven regimental flags (guard) or one colonel and eleven regimental flags (line). It is not known if the Swiss regiments had all their flags with them when on campaign in the 1793-1795 period.
Regarding the flags themselves:
- The colonelsflag were probably in white but the existing flags (in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam) are now in an offwhite (called ecrú) colour.
The wexisting flags measure about one meter square.
The flags shows:
x- mostly the coat of arms of the province who paid for the regiment. In this case the provincial coat of arms was placed on a field of trophies as flags, canons, weapons etc.
x- sometimes the coat of arms of the Republic itself (this could be on the back of a colonels colour as is known by the flag of the province of Overijssel
x- the Orange related (eg Orange Friesland regiment) or Hollandse garde regiments probably all had heraldic signs of the Orange family on the colonels flag
x-and probably some colonels flag had the coat of arms of the (country of the) proprietor eg in the German regiments
As said, the flag could have two identical sides but also known is the Overijssel flag with one side the coat of arms of Overijssel and on the back the coat of arms of the Republic.
Of some provinces, the flags are known and were portrayed in the previous blogpost but other are not known.
- The regimental flag(s) were coloured and bore probably the coat of arms of the proprietor. In the case in which the Stadholder was the proprietor, this regimental was orange as is shown on pictures of the flag of the Hollandse Garde.
No flags of National Regiments exists anymore and only some of Orange regiments and of German regiments. So only you can make an educated guess how the flas would have looked. Someday my interpetration will be published here.
Flags of Swiss regiments
These have a different history to the Dutch and look different; they have their own kind of colonels flag (but all in white) and as regimental flag the well known flag with multicoloured flames.
I have pictures of most of these colour from various sources so these will appear here sometime if I find the time.
Flags of hired units
This means eg French emigré units (no flags known yet) and German hired troops (some known).
If available, these will appear here sometime.
Tuesday, April 13, 2021
Dutch "national" regiments had two flags per battalion.
Not known is if each battalion had a colonels flag and one regimental flag but probably the first battalion had one colonels and one regimental flag; the second battalion two regimental. This was usual in most other countries.
In practice this doesn't matter for the 1793-1795 period as national regiments had just one battalion in the field (1793 of 8 companies, 1794/1795 of 6 companies) which, again, probably means this battalion had the colonels and the regimental flag.
What is known of the colonels flag is, that most had the coat of arms of the paying province or if the regiment was connected to House of Orange the colonels flag had a coat of arms connected to the House of orange (eg the three Nassau-Orange regiments).
As some of the colonels colours are in the public domain (site of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam) some known colonels colours are underneath with a remark of the regiments which had those colours.
As mostly only one colonels flag per province is known, it is of course possible that different designed provincial colours were used.
For dating and description I used the information in the book "Vlaggen, vaandels & standaarden van het Rijksmuseum Amsterdam" by M. v.d. Brandhof which book ahs pictures of the flags but sadly only in black/white.
Regarding the measurements of the flags; in the reglement of the the 28th of February 1772 is stated that new flags should be square with each side in „Rijnlandse“ measurements 3 Voet and
2 Duim (a voet = 31,4 cm, a duim = 2,61 cm) so the flags should be 99,42 cm
square (or approx 1 metre square).
I have given underneath the measurements of each flag in the Rijksmuseum and they are almost of this size.
Starting with the colonelsflag of Nassau-Orange regiments. There are two flags in the collection of the rijksmuseum.
As there were three regiments (nr I, nr II and nr III which later received the name Erfprins) I think they all had the same colonels flag but maybe different coloured regimental ones.
Regarding the flags, both sides are the same and the background of both flags is ecru or off-white but probably original white. The first one is 105*98 cm; the second one 108*96 cm.
Saturday, April 10, 2021
And while we are on the subject of the grenadiers, lets have a better look at the bearskins of the Dutch grenadiers in the FR period (1793-1795).
The grenadiers of the Dutch army in this period all wore the bearskin although grenadier officers also had the tricorne as they sometimes had to be on duty with musketeers; they then had according to the reglement to wear the tricorne.
Also one remarkable thing is, that the grenadiers had to wear their hairque underneath their bearskin unlike musketeers. Most pictures show this although there are exeptions.
In the mid 1750s both the Prussian style metallic plate fronted grenadiers mitre as the more southern style bearskin was worn by grenadiers but the mitre died out and only the bearskin cap remainded worn.
Up to the 1770s a lot of regiments had a bearskin with a smaller metal front plate as the Hollandse garde is wearing in the picture underneath (picture of the Rijksmuseum of around 1770 by Tethart Philp Christian Haag).
In 1789 this became the regiment nr 24 Bentinck but the kept the same facing colour. Probably they kept their bag colour.
On the right the 5th battalion Waldeck used as light infantry.
It is of course possible that it also kept its red grenadier bag.
Some pictures of the dragoon grenadiers are underneath but it should be mentioned that mostly a red bag is pictured but the last one show a blue bag. Probably a mistake or a change of colour?
Thursday, April 8, 2021
Wednesday, April 7, 2021
Here I present you our first French revolutionary Dutch units. As a slow painter there are always more units on the painting table then are ready but here it goes (with some information about the source of the paintings:
Dutch unit Huzaren van der Hoop (1787-1794) which was renamed for the rest of the revolutionary period as the Huzaren van Timmermans. They had 2 squadrons in the field although some say 3 sq.
Figures are Forgotten Glorious which sadly aren't with us anymore (afaik).